**Arithmetic** |
Arithmetic, as it is studied at this level, is often referred to as 'social mathematics' i.e. the sort of maths you encounter every day. Over the years, arithmetic questions (question 1 on Paper One) have been quite wide-ranging. Click here »» |

**Algebra** |
Algebra uses letters, called 'variables', to stand for unknown or general quantities and this opens up new and exciting areas of maths. It forms the backbone of the first paper, with two full questions (questions 2 and 3).
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**Complex Numbers & Matrices** |
Complex numbers are numbers which contain the so-called imaginary unit i, which stands for the square root of -1. Question 4 on Paper One each year deals exclusively with complex numbers in a similar way. Click here »» |

**Sequences and Series** |
Sequences and series are examined in question 5 on Paper One each year. Like most other questions on the first paper, a certain proficiency with algebra is required to answer many of the harder questions. Click here »» |

**Functions & Graphs** |
The concept of a function is very important in maths and allows associated items to be represented visually by means of graphs. On Paper One, functions and graphs are examined with differentiation in questions 6 and 8. Click here »» |

**Differentiation** |
Differentiation is a technique, first introduced over 300 years ago, to deal mathematically with the idea of rate of change. It appears mainly in question 7 on Paper One but can also be examined in questions 6 and 8. Click here »» |

**Areas and Volumes** |
Question 1 on Paper Two deals with mensuration (i.e., measuring), otherwise known as Areas and Volumes and deals with the perimeters and areas of plane objects like triangles, rectangles and circles. Click here »» |

**The Line** |
A fundamental idea in co-ordinate geometry is that of the equation of a line and its properties e.g., slope, distance, midpoint and the area of a triangle. Question 2 on Paper Two is a popular choice. Click here »» |

**The Circle** |
The Circle is examined in question 3 of Paper Two and is another very popular question. While many of the techniques are similar to those met in The Line, many questions can involve a high level of algebra. Click here »» |

**Geometry Theorems** |
Among the most important proofs in traditional maths are the proofs of the theorems from Euclidean geometry. You are required to learn ten theorems and one of these proofs will be asked in question 4 on Paper Two. Click here »» |

**Trigonometry** |
Trigonometry is examined in question 5 on Paper Two. A number of the key formulae are provided in the maths tables while some others have to be learned. Answering questions will involve using a calculator. Click here »» |

**Probability & Statistics** |
Probability is well known to the non-mathematical person as the idea of chance - of something happening, or not happening, when some kind of measurement is taken. There is no algebra involved in question 6. Click here »» |

**Statistics** |
Statistics is the area of maths that is concerned with displaying data in an easily understandable fashion, and summarising data (average and spread etc). Question 7 on Paper Two is another popular question. Click here »» |

**Further Geometry** |
In this option topic, examined in question 8 on Paper Two, there are five different, more challenging theorems whose proofs have to be learned. Cuts of any standard, easy or hard, can be asked. Click here »» |

**Vectors** |
The study of Vectors is a relatively new area of maths, dealing with translations or movement. Vectors can be used to provide neater, more elegant proofs for many theorems in geometry. Appears in question 9 on Paper Two.
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**Further Series** |
In this option topic, we see some of the applications of geometric and arithmetic series. In question 10 on Paper Two, we also meet another kind of series, called a binomial series. Click here »» |

**Linear Programming** |
Linear Programming is an interesting and practical topic which relies heavily on concepts from co-ordinate geometry of the line. It features in the final option question on Paper Two (question 11). Click here »» |