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Exam Guide | Model Answer

Junior Cycle Geography - Model Answer (O)

Question JC Geography (O) 1997 – Question 5
General comments This is a typical question on Physical Geography - Rivers from the ordinary-level exam paper.
Note how the marking scheme is applied and how you should deal with the instructions given in each question so as to maximise your marks.


  1. Explain the meaning of:
    river erosion and (ii) river deposition    (12 marks)
Straightforward, simple explanations are required. The examiner was looking for two points on river erosion (three marks for each point) and two points on river deposition (again, three marks for each point).Point onePoint two     Part A
River erosion means when a river wears away material from its bed and banks (i.e. from the bottom of the river and from the sides). River erosion usually occurs in the early stage of the river when it is rushing down the mountainside.River erosion can be carried out by the force of the water hitting the sides of the river valley. When a river deepens its bed it is called vertical erosion. When it widens its sides this is called lateral erosion.

River deposition means when a river deposits or drops material that it is carrying. This usually occurs when the river reaches the final stages of its course where the land is flatter and the slope is less.When a river reaches flatter ground it moves more slowly therefore it cannot carry as much material (load) as it carried when it was flowing more rapidly. The load that cannot be carried gets deposited on the bed, banks and mouth of the river.
B.  Describe, using diagrams, the formation of ONE feature which is formed by river erosion and ONE feature which is formed by river deposition. (12 marks).
Two features are required at six marks each.
You get two marks for naming the feature. There are four marks for drawing a diagram and explaining how the feature was formed.

Name the second feature. If your diagram is well-labelled with some notes of explanation then this will earn you the full four marks even if you do not write a separate note on the formation of the feature.
Part B
One feature formed by river erosion is a V-shaped valley.These valleys are found in the early stage of the river’s journey. They have steep sides and narrow floors. They are formed because at this stage the river is small and it uses a lot of its energy to deepen its bed. This is called vertical erosion. Weathering breaks off material from the sides of the valley, which falls into the river. The river then carries all this material away with it.

One feature formed by river deposition is an Ox-bow lake.
  1. Flooding by rivers can cause damage and loss of life in all regions of the world. This damage or loss of life, however, is usually more in the developing world than in the developed world. Explain ONE reason for this. (6 marks).
You are required to explain just one reason why flooding can cause more problems in the developing world.
Try to give two points of information in your answer.
Part C
Flooding sometimes causes more damage and loss of life in the developing world than in the developed world. The developing countries are poorer and do not have enough money to build good protection against the floods.Their houses are often very poor and can get washed away by the floodwaters.In these countries, people tend to live very close to the river because there is often a shortage of good land.

Exam Guide | Model Answer

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