Metals, Ores and Rocks
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Transition metals

  • Hard, high melting point/density.
  • Compounds brightly coloured.
  • Aluminium - cooking foil.
  • Lead - seals brickwork around chimneys.
  • Mercury (liquid metal) - thermometers.
  • Copper - wiring; impure copper used for water pipes.
  • Titanium - unreactive, strong, lightweight, used for replacement hip joints.
  • Used to make alloys eg carbon (0.5%) added to iron makes mild steel for bridges/ships and copper and nickel make silver coloured coins.
  • Elements and their compounds used as catalysts.
  • Iron is catalyst in manufacture of ammonia in Haber process.
  • Platinum is catalyst in manufacture of nitric acid.

    Metals and reactivity series

  • Reactivity Series is arrangement of metals in order of their reactivity with air, water and dilute acid.
  • Position of metal in reactivity series determines how it can be extracted from its ore.
  • Zinc and less reactive metals are extracted by chemical reduction by heating with carbon or carbon monoxide.
  • Nickel is catalyst in manufacture of margarine.
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    Reactions with water and air

  • Potassium reacts violently and immediately with water and air.
  • Iron reacts slowly to form rust.
  • Gold does not react.

    Reactions with oxygen

  • When metals react with oxygen, they form oxides,
  • Magnesium + oxygen -->magnesium oxide
  • The more reactive a metal, the more readily it is oxidised.

    Reactions with acids

  • Magnesium reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid forming hydrogen gas (effervescence) and magnesium chloride.

    Competition between metals

  • Thermit reaction - aluminium and iron oxide used to repair railway lines.
  • More reactive aluminium takes oxygen from less reactive iron
  • 2Al(s)+Fe2O3(s) --> Al2O3(s)+2Fe(s)
  • Exothermic reaction melts iron which is formed.

    Oxidation and reduction

  • Redox process - reduction and oxidation take place at same time.
  • OILRIG - Oxidation Is Loss of electrons/gain of oxygen, Reduction Is Gain of electrons/loss of oxygen.

    Displacement reactions

  • More reactive metal displaces less reactive from solutions of its compounds.
  • Copper more reactive than silver, so displaces silver from silver nitrate solution.
  • Silver atoms form, colourless silver nitrate solution turns blue.
  • Copper + silver nitrate --> silver+ copper nitrate.

    Extraction of unreactive metals from their ores

  • Gold found pure in earth
  • Most metals too reactive to exist as pure elements - found as compounds in ores.
  • Iron oxide + carbon monoxide --> iron + carbon dioxide.

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